Table of Contents

Proactive resilience strategy

This document guides you in creating a Timing resilience strategy that tracks the execution times of callbacks and reports when the execution time exceeds the expected duration. This is a prime example of a proactive strategy because we aren't concerned with the individual results produced by the callbacks. Hence, this strategy can be used across various result types.


Proactive resilience strategies are derived from the ResilienceStrategy base class. For this strategy, the implementation is:

// Strategies should be internal and not exposed in the library's public API.
// Configure the strategy through extension methods and options.
internal sealed class TimingResilienceStrategy : ResilienceStrategy
    private readonly TimeSpan _threshold;
    private readonly Func<OnThresholdExceededArguments, ValueTask>? _onThresholdExceeded;
    private readonly ResilienceStrategyTelemetry _telemetry;

    public TimingResilienceStrategy(
        TimeSpan threshold,
        Func<OnThresholdExceededArguments, ValueTask>? onThresholdExceeded,
        ResilienceStrategyTelemetry telemetry)
        _threshold = threshold;
        _telemetry = telemetry;
        _onThresholdExceeded = onThresholdExceeded;

    protected override async ValueTask<Outcome<TResult>> ExecuteCore<TResult, TState>(
        Func<ResilienceContext, TState, ValueTask<Outcome<TResult>>> callback,
        ResilienceContext context,
        TState state)
        var stopwatch = Stopwatch.StartNew();

        // Execute the given callback and adhere to the ContinueOnCapturedContext property value.
        Outcome<TResult> outcome = await callback(context, state).ConfigureAwait(context.ContinueOnCapturedContext);

        if (stopwatch.Elapsed > _threshold)
            // Bundle information about the event into arguments.
            var args = new OnThresholdExceededArguments(context, _threshold, stopwatch.Elapsed);

            // Report this as a resilience event if the execution took longer than the threshold.
                new ResilienceEvent(ResilienceEventSeverity.Warning, "ExecutionThresholdExceeded"),

            if (_onThresholdExceeded is not null)
                await _onThresholdExceeded(args).ConfigureAwait(context.ContinueOnCapturedContext);

        // Return the outcome directly.
        return outcome;

Review the code and comments to understand the implementation. Take note of the OnThresholdExceededArguments struct:

// Structs for arguments encapsulate details about specific events within the resilience strategy.
// Relevant properties to the event can be exposed. In this event, the actual execution time and the exceeded threshold are included.
public readonly struct OnThresholdExceededArguments
    public OnThresholdExceededArguments(ResilienceContext context, TimeSpan threshold, TimeSpan duration)
        Context = context;
        Threshold = threshold;
        Duration = duration;

    public TimeSpan Threshold { get; }

    public TimeSpan Duration { get; }

    // As per convention, all arguments should provide a "Context" property.
    public ResilienceContext Context { get; }

Arguments should always have an Arguments suffix and include a Context property. Using arguments boosts the extensibility and maintainability of the API, as adding new members becomes a non-breaking change. The OnThresholdExceededArguments provides details about the actual execution time and threshold, allowing consumers to respond to this event or supply a custom callback for such situations.


In the previous section, we implemented the TimingResilienceStrategy. Now, it's time to integrate it with Polly and its public API.

Let's define the public TimingStrategyOptions to configure our strategy:

public class TimingStrategyOptions : ResilienceStrategyOptions
    public TimingStrategyOptions()
        // Assign a default name to the options for more detailed telemetry insights.
        Name = "Timing";

    // Apply validation attributes to guarantee the options' validity.
    // The pipeline will handle validation automatically during its construction.
    [Range(typeof(TimeSpan), "00:00:00", "1.00:00:00")]
    public TimeSpan? Threshold { get; set; }

    // Provide the delegate to be called when the threshold is surpassed.
    // Ideally, arguments should share the delegate's name, but with an "Arguments" suffix.
    public Func<OnThresholdExceededArguments, ValueTask>? OnThresholdExceeded { get; set; }

Options represent our public contract with the consumer. By using them, we can easily add new members without breaking changes and perform validation consistently.


So far, we've covered:

  • The public TimingStrategyOptions and its associated arguments.
  • The proactive strategy implementation named TimingResilienceStrategy.

The final step is to integrate these components with each other by adding new extensions for both ResiliencePipelineBuilder and ResiliencePipelineBuilder<T>. Since both builders inherit from the same base class, we can introduce a single extension for ResiliencePipelineBuilderBase to serve both.

public static class TimingResilienceStrategyBuilderExtensions
    // The extensions should return the builder to support a fluent API.
    // For proactive strategies, we can target both "ResiliencePipelineBuilderBase" and "ResiliencePipelineBuilder<T>"
    // using generic constraints.
    public static TBuilder AddTiming<TBuilder>(this TBuilder builder, TimingStrategyOptions options)
        where TBuilder : ResiliencePipelineBuilderBase
        // Add the strategy through the AddStrategy method. This method accepts a factory delegate
        // and automatically validates the options.
        return builder.AddStrategy(
            context =>
                // The "context" provides various properties for the strategy's use.
                // In this case, we simply use the "Telemetry" property and pass it to the strategy.
                // The Threshold and OnThresholdExceeded values are sourced from the options.
                var strategy = new TimingResilienceStrategy(

                return strategy;


// Add the proactive strategy to the builder
var pipeline = new ResiliencePipelineBuilder()
    // This is custom extension defined in this sample
    .AddTiming(new TimingStrategyOptions
        Threshold = TimeSpan.FromSeconds(1),
        OnThresholdExceeded = args =>
            Console.WriteLine("Execution threshold exceeded!");
            return default;


For further information on proactive resilience strategies, consider exploring these resources: